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Lead is a chemical element with the symbol Pb (Latin: plumbum) and atomic number 82. A soft, heavy, toxic and malleable poor metal, lead is bluish white when freshly cut, but tarnishes to dull gray when exposed to air. Lead is used in building construction, lead-acid batteries, bullets and shot, weights, and is part of solder, pewter, and fusible alloys. Lead has the highest atomic number of all stable elements, although the next element, bismuth, has a half-life so long (longer than the estimated age of the universe) it can be considered stable. Like mercury, another heavy metal, lead is a potent neurotoxin that accumulates in soft tissues and bone over time.

Lead has a dull luster and is a dense, ductile, very soft, highly malleable, bluish-white metal that has poor electrical conductivity. This true metal is highly resistant to corrosion, and because of this property, it is used to contain corrosive liquids (e.g. sulfuric acid). Lead can be toughened by adding a small amount of antimony or other metals to it. It is a common misconception that lead has a zero Thomson effect. All lead, except 204Pb, is the end product of a complex radioactive decay (see isotopes of lead below). Lead is also poisonous.

SymbolPbDensity (20°C)/gcm-311.342
Atomic number82Melting point /°C327
No. of naturally occurring isotopes4Boiling point /°C1751
Atomic weight207.2ΔHfus/kJmol-14.81
Electronic configuration[Xe]4f145d10ΔHvap/kJmol-1178
Band gap Eg/kJ mol-10ΔHf(monoatomic gas/kJmol-1195
Ionization energy/kJmol-1I715.4Electronegativity χ1.9
Ionization energy /kJmol-1111450rIV (covaIent)/pm146
Ionization energy IcJmol-1III3080.7rIV (ionic, 6-coordinate)/pm78
Ionization energy/kJmol-1IV4082.3rIV (ionic, 6-coordinate) pm119
Electrical resistivity (20°C)/μohm cm20x10-6

Temperature (oC) @Vap. PressureTechniquesRemarks
10-8Torr10-6Torr10-4TorrElectron BeamCrucibleCoilBoat
342427497ExcellentAl2O3 & QuartzTungstenTungsten & MolybdenumToxic. Carefully controlled rates required For superconductors

Sputtering Targets
Matierial SymbolAtomic Number     Thermal Conductivity         Theoretical Density 
W/m.K           g/cc
Evaporation Materials
Matierial SymbolAtomic Number     Thermal Conductivity         Theoretical Density 
Pb ( pellets & pieces )Pb823511.3

Below is the periodic table of chemical elements.The elements in red are the ones Nexteck's product contain. Click them, you will come to the details.


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